Readiness to engage in interpersonal aggression in the interactive perspective of risk and protection
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Instytut Pedagogiki Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, ul. J.W. Dawida 1, 50-527 Wrocław, Polska
Submission date: 2018-10-02
Final revision date: 2018-12-06
Acceptance date: 2018-12-06
Publication date: 2018-12-31
Corresponding author
Piotr Kwiatkowski   

Instytut Pedagogiki Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, ul. J.W. Dawida 1, 50-527 Wrocław, Polska
Wychowanie w Rodzinie 2018;18(2):339-360
Aim: In the theoretical part forms of aggression are named and defined, and the theories explaining the readiness to engage in aggressive behaviour are discussed. An outline of scientific investigation has been provided, with the introduction of the notions of risk factors and protective factors, as well as discussion of two models of the functioning of protective factors (risk compensation and risk reduction). Methods: In the methodological part the research aim is defined as the verification of both the models of protection. Independent variables in risk areas (self-control deficit, externalisation difficulties, the need to seek powerful sensations, and frustration level) and protection (relationship with parents, parental control, and the general assessment of the quality of upbringing in the family of origin), as well as the dependent variable in the form of the index of the behavioural readiness to engage in aggressive behaviour (sum of the indicators of attitude, subjective norm, and aggressive behaviour in the past) are presented. The sample included 229 secondary school students from Opolskie and Slaskie voivodships. Five data analysis techniques have been employed: correlation analysis, factor analysis, analysis of the reliability of the used measurement scales, multiple regression analysis, and factorial regression analysis. Results: Factor analyses have justified the connection of the risk factors and the protection factors into two collective indexes of risk and protection. Regression analyses (multiple and factorial) made it possible to confront both the models (risk compensation and risk reduction) with the data from the sample. The research has not provided a basis for the verification of the correctness of any of the models mentioned above. The risk compensation model has not been confirmed because the protective factors have not presented themselves as predictive in relation to the readiness to engage in behavioural aggression. The risk reduction model has not been confirmed, because the high value of protective factors has not led to a decrease in the readiness to engage in aggression in individuals with a high value of the risk index. The image of the significant interactive relationship was more complex – it has been presented that a high protective index leads to an extremely low willingness to aggression in individuals with a low risk index of aggression and an extremely high willingness to aggression in individuals with a high value of the aggression risk index. Conclusions: High functionality of the family of origin does not exclude propensity for aggression, and in certain circumstances in the form of high intensity of individual aggressive predispositions it may even increase the risk, which can constitute a significant problem from the perspective of prevention and an incentive to seek specific solutions in this matter.
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