Psychological characteristics of perfectionism in youth
More details
Hide details
Department of Psychology, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce [Wydział Pedagogiki i Psychologii, Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach], Krakowska 11, 25-029 Kielce, Poland
Department of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 1st Faculty of Medicine with Dentistry Division, Medical University of Lublin [Klinika Psychiatrii i Rehabilitacji Psychiatrycznej, I Wydział Lekarsko – Dentystyczny, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie], Gluska 1 (SPSK No 1), 20-439 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce [Wydział Lekarski i Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach], Aleja IX Wieków Kielc 19A, 25-317 Kielce, Poland
Syntonia Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic [Przychodnia Syntonia], Podgórska 20, 25-103 Kielce, Poland
Submission date: 2021-09-07
Final revision date: 2021-12-06
Acceptance date: 2021-12-06
Publication date: 2021-12-22
Corresponding author
Justyna Świerczyńska   

Wydział Pedagogiki i Psychologii, Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Krakowska 11, 25-029 Kielce, Polska
Beata Pawłowska   

Klinika Psychiatrii i Rehabilitacji Psychiatrycznej, I Wydział Lekarsko – Dentystyczny, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie, Głuska 1 (SPSK Nr 1), 20-439 Lublin, Polska
Wychowanie w Rodzinie 2021;24(1):285-299
Aim. The aim of the work was to compare the intensity of perfectionism in the study subjects, considering their division by sex, place of residence and family structure. The study included a group of 345 persons (198 girls and 147 boys) aged 12–16 years. Methods. The Frost Multidimensional Questionnaire for Testing Perfectionism (FMPS), translated and developed by Tucholska and a sociodemographic survey by Justyna Świerczyńska were used in the work. Results and conclusions. The obtained results prove the presence of significant differences in terms of the intensity of perfectionism and its dimensions among the studied girls and boys, people living in the city and in the countryside, and growing up in complete and single-parent families. Significant correlations were also shown between the subjects’ perfectionism and their age, school performance and the level of parents’ education. The obtained results indicate that boys display a higher level of perfectionism than girls. Neurotic perfectionism is associated with the older age of the studied girls. Adaptive perfectionism is associated with living in the city, being brought up in a complete family, higher education of parents, higher grade point average and positive assessment of oneself as a student.
Bieling, P.J., Israeli, A.L., Antony, M.M. (2004). Is perfectionism good, bad, or both?: Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 36 (6), 1373-1385. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00235-6.
Bulik, C.M., Tozzi, F., Anderson, C., Mazzeo, S.E., Aggen, S., Sullivan, P.F. (2003). The relation between eating disorders and components of perfectionism. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 366-368. DOi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.2.366.
Brustein, M. (2013). Perfectionism: A guide for mental health professionals. New York: Springer Publishing.
Cockell, S.J., Hewitt, P.L., Seal, B., Sherry, S., Goldner, E.M., Flett, G.L., Remick R.A. (2002). Trait and selfpresentational dimensions of perfectionism among women with anorexia nervosa. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(6), 745-758. DOi: 10.1023/A:1021237416366.
Enns, M.W., Cox, B.J., Sareen, J., Freeman, P. (2001). Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism in medical students: A longitudinal investigation. Medical Education, 35, 1034-1042. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2923.2001.01044.x.
Enns, M.W., Cox, B.J., Clara, I. (2002). Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism: Developmental origins and association with depression proneness. Personality and Individual Differences, 33 (6), 921-935. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00202-1.
Flett, G.L., Hewitt, P.L. (2002). Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment. Washington: American Psychological Association.
Flett, G.L., Hewitt, P.L., Besser, A., Su, C., Villancourt, T., Boucher, D., Gale, O. (2016). The child-adolescent perfectionism scale: Development, psychometric properties, and associations with stress, distress and psychiatric symptoms. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34, 634-652. DOI: 10.1177/0734282916651381.
Frost, R.O., Marten, P.A. (1990). Perfectionism and evaluative threat. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 559-572. DOI: 10.1007/BF01173364.
Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449-468. DOI: 10.1007/BF01172967.
Frost, R.O., Turcotte, T.A., Heimberg, R.G., Mattia, J.I., Holt, C.S., Hope, D.A. (1995). Reactions to mistakes among subjects high and low in perfectionistic concern over mistakes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 195-205. DOI: 10.1007/BF02229694.
Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., Rosenblate, R. (2010). Wielowymiarowy Kwestionariusz do Badania Perfekcjonizmu FMPS – wersja nieopublikowana, tłum. i oprac. S. Tucholska.
Halmi, K.A., Sunday, S.R., Strober, M., Kaplan, A., Woodside, D.B., Fichter, M., Treasure, J., Berrettini, W., Kaye, W. (2000). Perfectionism in anorexia nervosa: Variation by clinical subtype, obsessionality, and pathological eating behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157 (11), 1799-1805. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.11.1799.
Hamachek, D.E. (1978). Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology, 15(1), 27-33.
Henning, K., Ey, S., Shaw, D. (1998). Perfectionism, the imposter phenomenon and psychological adjustment in medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy students. Medical Education, 32, 456-464. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2923.1998.00234.x.
Hewitt, P.L., Flett, G.L., Besser, A., Sherry, S.B., McGee, B. (2003). Perfectionism is multidimensional: A reply to Shafran, Cooper and Fairburn. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41 (10), 1221-1236. DOi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00021-4.
Hewitt, P.L., Flett, G.L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social con-texts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.3.456.
Mills, J., Blankstein, K.R. (2000). Perfectionism, intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation, and motivated strategies for learning: A multidimensional analysis of university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(6), 1191-1204. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00003-9.
Molnar, D.S., Reker, D.L., Culp, N.A., Sadava, S.W., DcCourville, N.H. (2006). A mediated model of perfectionism, affect, and physical health. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 482-500. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.04.002.
Moor, S., Vartanian, L.R., Touyz, S.W., Beumont, P.J.V. (2004). Psychopathology of EDNOS patients: To whom do they compare? Clinical Psychologist, 8 (2), 70-75. DOI: 10.1080/1328420041233130436.
Osenk, I., Williamson, P., Wade, T.D. (2020). Does perfectionism or pursuit of excellence contribute to successful learning? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Assessment, 32(10), 972-983. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000942.
Rice, K.G., Preusser, K.J. (2002). The adaptive/maladaptive perfectionism scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 210-222. DOI: 10.1080/07481756.2002.12069038.
Sassaroli, S., Lauro, L.J., Ruggiero, G.M., Mauri, M.C., Vinai, P., Frost, R. (2008). Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46 (6), 757-765. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.02.007.
Seeliger, H., Harendza, S. (2017). Is perfect good?: Dimensions of perfectionism in newly admitted medical students. BMC Medical Education, 17, 206. DOI: 10.1186/s12909-017-1034-9.
Shafran, R., Cooper, Z., Fairburn, C.G. (2002). Clinical perfectionism: A cognitive- behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 773-791. DOI: 10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00059-6.
Slaney, R.B., Rice, K.G., Mobley, M., Trippi, J., Ashby, J.S. (2001). The revised almost perfect scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 130-145. DOI: 10.1080/07481756.2002.12069030.
Stoeber, J. (2018). The psychology of perfectionism: An introduction. W: J. Stoeber (red.), The psychology of perfectionism: Theory, research, applications (ss. 3-16). London: Routledge.
Stoltz, K., Ashby, J.S. (2007). Perfectionism and lifestyle: Personality differences among adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 63 (4), 414-423.
Taylor, E.P., Couper, R., Butler, C.M. (2017). Adolescent perfectionism: Structural features of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and correlates with attachment and psychopathology. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 90 (4), 686-704. DOI: 10.1111/papt.12133.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top